Search for native plants by scientific name, common name or family. If you are not sure what you are looking for, try the Combination Search or our Recommended Species lists.
Search native plant database:
Gammill, Lynn Crosby
Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.
Large-flower wakerobin, Large-flowered trillium, White trillium
USDA Symbol: trgr4
USDA Native Status: Native to U.S.
A stout, 12-15 in. stem is topped by three large, oval leaves. A single large, white, long-lasting flower arises above the leaf whorl and becomes pink as it matures. The large, solitary, waxy-white flower (turning pink with age) is on an erect stalk above a whorl of 3 broad leaves.
This largest and showiest trillium is frequently cultivated in wildflower gardens. The underground rootstalks were gathered and chewed by Native Americans for a variety of medicinal purposes. The plants have also been picked and eaten as cooked greens. This practice may be fatal to the plant, since these trilliums arise from the rootstalks, which often die if the leaves are removed.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Herb Leaf Complexity: Simple Flower:
Red Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Pink
Bloom Time: May , Jun
AL , CT , DC , DE , GA , IL , IN , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , NC , NH , NJ , NY , OH , PA , SC , TN , VA , VT , WI , WV Canada: ON
, QC Native Distribution:
GA to TN, n. through mts. to New England (locally) & to s. Que, MI & MN Native Habitat:
Rich, mixed woods; thickets; swamps USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN(N)
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Soil Description: Moist, humus-rich, sandy loam.
Conditions Comments: A mulch of rotted or shredded leaves at the beginning at end of the season is beneficial.
Other Showy Insects Use Food:
EDIBLE PARTS / PREPARATION: Young, unfolding leaves. Wash leaves in warm water to remove dirt and debris. Do not use dish detergent or any type of sanitizer. Cook in boiling, salted water for ten minutes and serve like greens. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.) Use Medicinal:
peoples used snow trillium roots and rootstocks as medicine, and the young leaves are said to make excellent salad and cooked greens, but it would be a shame to kill such a beautiful plant. (Kershaw) Warning:
POISONOUS PARTS: Berries and roots. Only low toxicity if eaten. Toxic Principle: Toxicity unknown, but caution because of its relationship with known toxic plants. Conspicuous Flowers:
Seeds do best when planted outdoors soon after fruits have ripened. Sow 1/2 deep. Flowers the fourth or fifth year. Rhizome
division and rhizome
wounding are methods of increasing existing plants. For the latter, remove the soil to expose the rhizome Seed Collection:
is a white, oval
berry. Seeds mature within 5-6 weeks after the plant flowers. They are ready to collect when they are dark or beginning to darken. Store for short periods only by packing the whole berry
in moist sphagnum sealed in a refrigerated container. Seed Treatment:
Not Available Commercially Avail:
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
Delaware Nature Society
- Hockessin, DELongwood Gardens
- Newark, DE
From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter 1985 VOL. 2, NO.1
- A Glorious Spring, Lupines in Landscapes, Director's Report, Notable Quote, Wild...Wildflower Newsletter 1987 VOL. 4, NO.1
- One Million Bequest Announced, Lady Bird Johnson On Celebrating Four Years, Spri...Wildflower Newsletter 1990 VOL. 7, NO.3
- Is Wildflower Collecting a Good School Activity, Wildflower Center Study Finds C...Wildflower Newsletter 1990 VOL. 7, NO.4
- Research Update, Wild-Collecting Endangers Natives, Director's Report, Maryland ...Wildflower Newsletter 1993 VOL. 10, NO.2
- Berry Browsing in the Backyard, Director\'s Report, Essays on Trillium\'s, Natio...
Recommended Species Lists
Find native plant species by state. Each list contains commercially available species suitable for gardens and planned landscapes. Once you have selected a collection, you can browse the collection or search within it using the combination search.
View Recommended Species page
Record Modified: 2007-01-01
Research By: TWC Staff