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Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf.
Devil's-tongue, Low prickly pear, Smooth prickly pear, Prickly pear
Synonyms: Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa, Opuntia compressa, Opuntia rafinesquei
USDA Symbol: ophu
USDA Native Status: Native to U.S.
A clump-forming cactus bearing few yellow flowers, often with reddish centers and flat, fleshy, green pads covered with clusters of minute, reddish-brown, barbed bristles. The oval, segmented pads of this prickly-pear occur in low mounds usually less than 8 in. in height but up to 3 ft. across. Large, waxy, yellow flowers with masses of showy stamens are produced singly or in small groups along the upper edges of the pads. A reddish-colored, edible fruit follows. Small, hair-like spines occur on the pads and fruits.
This showy native plant, the only cactus widespread in the eastern United States, is occasionally transplanted into northern gardens. Fragile Prickly-pear (O. fragilis), also known as Brittle Cactus, found from the Great Plains east to Illinois and Michigan, and Drummondís Prickly-pear (O. pusilla), occurring in the southeastern United States, have stems that are only slightly flattened.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: May , Jun , Jul
AL , AR , CO , CT , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , MI , MN , MO , MS , MT , NC , NE , NJ , NM , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , WI , WV Canada: ON Native Distribution:
MA to MN, s. to FL, AL & OK Native Habitat:
Dry, sandy & rocky areas USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN(N)
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
Heat Tolerant: yes
Soil Description: Sandy or rocky soils.
Conditions Comments: Not Available
Attractive, Desert landscape, Blooms ornamental Use Food:
EDIBLE PARTS: Ripe fruit
edible raw or in jelly. Leaf pads, fruit
and seeds. Use tender young leaf pads gathered during the spring. PREPARATION: Wash leaf pads, fruit
and seeds thoroughly with warm water. Do not use dish detergent or any type of sanitizer. These products can leave a residue. Peel and cut pulp into chunks or strips and cook like string beans. Batter, roast or fry pads. The interior of the pad similar to okra and can be used to thicken soups. Cut pads into pieces and use raw in salads. Remove bristles before use with a flame or by wiping off with a glove or damp cloth. Or, bake the pads in a medium-temperature oven for one-half hour, then peel the skin with the bristles attached. If a knife is used to cut out bristles, wipe after each cut, because mucilage produced by the pads will stick to blade. Roast the pads in their skin on a fire for about 15-20 minutes per side. Peel and eat the pulp after cooking. Peel or cut in half and scoop out pulp before use. Chill and eat raw or pickle after removing seeds. Dried seeds can be crushed or ground into flour and used in soup as a thickener. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.) Use Medicinal:
Amerindians poulticed peeled pads on wounds, applied juice of cactus to warts, drank pad tea for lung ailments. (Foster & Duke) Warning:
POISONOUS PARTS: Glochids (minute bristle-like, barbed hairs in clusters) on the stems (green, thickened stems resemble leaves). Severe skin irritation upon contact. Symptoms include painful skin and eye irritation following contact; internal effects in diabetics from ingestion. Toxic Principle: Unknown; possibly mechanical effect of glochids. Conspicuous Flowers:
Seeds are best sown outdoors immediately after collection. Seedling will appear the next spring. Cuttings can be taken anytime during the frowing season by breaking off one or more pads at their joints and sticking in prepared soil. Roots should be est Seed Collection:
Collect seeds from the mature, reddish-brown fruit. Wear gloves while collecting. Rake the seeds from the berry
(removing all pulp is not necessary), air-dry a few hours, and store in sealed, refrigerated containers. Seed Treatment:
Not Available Commercially Avail:
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-MLE-27
Collected 2010-08-07 in Hardin County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
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Record Modified: 2012-12-09
Research By: TWC Staff